Civil Society, Media and Public Diplomacy

Christos Frangonikolopoulos

EUJ 215 Civil Society, Media and Public Diplomacy


About This Course

Course Description

Τhe course examines how transnational and multidimensional civil society efforts can work in the trajectory of enhancing the transparency, legitimacy and awareness of European politics and media, by creating spaces for alternative theorizations to mainstream paradigms, aiming and shaping shape conducive ground for alternative, potentially groundbreaking policies, as well as functioning in the direction of existing policies, making them more efficient. In addition, the course will also introduce and examine the concept of strategic communication discursive processes and how it can play an essential role in politics and diplomacy in the twenty-first century.  Strategic refers to the need to focus on the mounting problems for and relevant to most, if not all, parts of the global population.  Discursive refers to the need to create hubs for discussion, argumentation and counter-argumentation, and feedback.

Course Objectives

The aim of this course is to explore the digitalization of diplomacy and to shed light on the adaptation level of the European Union by presenting its activity on social media. The main teaching and research questions posed are:

  1. Ιn what ways has the European Union used digital tools to respond to crises?
  2. What are the (recurring) challenges facing the European Union so as to improve its image in a changing world and enhance its role as a leading global actor?
  3. How the diversity and dense texture of civil society and the new media can contribute to European politics/diplomacy?

Learning Outcomes

Upon completion of the course, students will be able to critically understand how EUPD can and should encourage discursive processes, strengthening the European public sphere with regard to the profoundly political and critical issues of the present era.

Class/Learning activities

This course will employ seminar lectures and discussions, student in-class presentations, and individual investigative reports.

Course Evaluation

  • Presentations and verbal contributions by all students are essential. It is expected that students attend each class. Each student will be responsible for one or two presentations. During the presentation, students present an effective summary of their prescribed reading/research, offer their insight into its arguments/significance and direct class discussion on it.
  • Each student will write an investigative report (roughly 5.000 words, incl. references/footnotes). Bibliography will be suggested and if possible be provided by the instructor. Students will work and research in greater detail their class presentations or in collaboration with their professor agree on a specific topic they would like to research/write.



Type of work

Description Hours
Lectures Thirteen 3-hours lectures 39
Independent study Study of compulsory and optional literature 61
Research Online research 30
Presentations Student in-class presentations (individual or group presentations) 50
Written assignments

Written assignments

Research essay (5000 words) and investigative report (3000 words)

in-class presentations

Total workload 300


Type of assessment Learning outcome Impact on final grade Date of assessment
Participation in group work and discussion 1-2 10% Regularly
In class presentations 1-2, 5 30% 7th and 13th week
Investigative reports 3-4 30% 13th week
Written assignment (essay) 1-5 30% 13th week

Recommended Reading

  • Bátora, J. (2005). Public Diplomacy in Small and Medium-Sized States: Norway and Canada. Hague: Clingendael. doi:
  • Bátora, J., & Spence, D. (2015). Introduction: The EEAS as a Catalyst of Diplomatic Innovation. In D. Spence, & J. Bátora (Eds.), The European External Action Service: European Diplomacy Post-Westphalia (pp. 1-16). Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Baumler, B. (2019). EU Public Diplomacy Addapting to an Ever-Changing World. Los Angeles: USC Center on Public Diploamcy.
  • Carta, C. “The swinging “we”: framing the European Union international discourse.” Journal of Language and Politics 14, no. 1 (2015): 65-86.
  • Communicating (in)Security: A Failure of Public Diplomacy? Juliet Lodge, 2006,
  • Cross, M. K. (2015). The Public Diplomacy Role of the EEAS: Crafting a Resilient Image for Europe. In D. Spence, & J. Bátora (Eds.), The European External Action Service: European Diplomacy Post-Westphalia (pp. 341-355). Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Cull, N. J. (2020). Public Diplomacy Before Gullion:The Evolution of a Phrase. In N. Snow, & N. J. Cull (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy (2nd ed.). New York : Routledge.
  • Duke, S. (2013). The European External Action Service and Public Diplomacy. In M. Cross, & J. Melissen (Eds.), European Public Diplomacy (pp. 113-136). Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • European Infopolitik: Developing EU Public Diplomacy Strategy Philip Fiske de Gouveia with Hester Plumridge, November 2005, Foreing Policy Centre
  • European Public Diplomacy: Soft Power at Work, 2013 Palgrave Macmillan, Editors: Mai’a K. Davis Cross and Jan Melissen
  • Gilboa, E. (2008). Searching for a theroy of Public Diplomacy. The ANALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616, 55-77.
  • Global civil society and deliberation in the global age, Int. J. Electronic Governance, Christos Frangonikolopoulos, 2012, 5: 11–23.
  • Gregory, B. (2008). Public Diplomacy: The Sunrise of Academic Field. The ANALS of American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616, 274-290.
  • Huijgh, E. (2013). Changing Tunes for Public Diplomacy: Exploring the Domestic Dimension. Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy, 2(1). Retrieved 03 14, 2021, from
  • Huijgh, E. (2013). Public Diplomacy’s Domestic Dimension in the EU. In M. K. Cross, & J. Melissen (Eds.), European Public Diplomacy: Soft Power at Work (pp. 57-84). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Huijgh, E. (2019). Public Diplomacy at Home. Leiden: Brill | Nijhoff. Retrieved 02 17, 2021,
  • Huijgh, E., & Warlick, J. (2016). The Public Diplomacy of Emerging Powers: The case of Turkey. In Rising Soft Powers:Turkey (pp. 1-18). Los Angeles: USC Center on Public Diplomacy.
  • ilboa, E. (2001). Diplomacy in the media age: Three models of uses and effects. Diplomacy and Statecraft, 12(2), 1-28. doi:10.1080/09592290108406201
  • Kølvraa, C. “European fantasies: on the EU’s political myths and the affective potential of utopian imaginaries for european identity”. Journal of Common Market Studies 54, no. 1 (2016): 169-84. doi:
  • Lynch, D. (2005, November). Communicating Europe to the world: what public diplomacy for the EU? EPC Working Paper. Retrieved May 8, 2020,
  • Manners, I., & Whitman, R. (2013). Normative Power and the Future of EU Public Diplomacy. In M. K. Cross, & J. Melissen (Eds.), European Public Diplomacy (pp. 183-203). Basingstoke, Hampshire, England: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Manners, I., P. Murray. “The end of a noble narrative? European integration narratives after the Nobel peace prize.” Journal of Common Market Studies 54, no. 1 (2016): 185–202. doi:
  • Manners, I., R. Whitman. “Another theory is possible: dissident voices in theorising Europe.” Journal of Common Market Studies 54, no. 1 (2016): 3–18. doi:
  • Manor, I. (2019). The Digitalization of Public Diplomacy. Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • McClellan, M. (2004, 10 14). Public Diplomacy in the Context of Traditional Diplomacy. Vienna. Retrieved 10 12, 2020,
  • Melissen, J. (2011). Beyond New Public Diplomacy. Hague: Clingendeal. Retrieved 11 05, 2020,
  • Melissen, J., & Wang, J. (2019). Introduction: Debating Public Diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 14(1-2), 1-5. doi:10.1163/1871191X-14101064
  • Pamment, J. (2013). West European Public Diplomacy. In M. K. Cross, & J. Melissen (Eds.), European Public Diplomacy: Soft Power at Work (pp. 13-56). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Public Diplomacy: How to think about and improve Greece’s neglected component of foreign policy in times of economic crisis, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Christos Frangonikolopoulos, 2012, 8(3):185-193.
  • Rasmussen, S. B. (2010). The Messages and Practices of the European Union’s Public Diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 5(3), 263-287. doi:10.1163/187119110X50852.
  • Rasmussen, S. B. (2014). EU Diplomacy after Lisbon: Institutional Innovation, Diplomatic Practices and International Strategy. Challenges of the Knowledge Society, 4(1), 778-801.
  • Refocusing Public Diplomacy, Diplomacy & Statecraft, Christos Frangonikolopoulos, 2012, 23:728–745
  • Robberecht, J., & Diez, T. (2013). The European Union External Action in Times of Crisis and Change – Public Diplomacy and Discourse. GR:EEN, Global Re-ordering Evolution through European Networks (pp. Advocacy, Governmental Organisations and Research Networks-Agora Forum).
  • Sharp, P. (2016). Domestic Public Diplomacy, Domestic Diplomacy, and Domestic Foreign Policy. In G. Hellmann, A. Fahrmeir, & M. Vec (Eds.). London: Oxford University Press.
  • Snow, N., & Cull, N. J. (Eds.). (2020). Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. New York : Routledge.
  • The Challenge of Public Diplomacy for the European External Action Service, Aurélie Courtier, EIPA Maastricht, 2011